Dissolving a Joint Stock Company: Comprehensive Step-by-Step Guide

If you are a stakeholder in a joint-stock company in Poland, you may be well aware of the numerous advantages this business structure offers. However, there might come a time when your company needs to be liquidated, whether due to financial difficulties or a change in ownership. Liquidating a joint-stock company in Poland can be a complex and time-consuming process, involving strict adherence to legal and regulatory requirements. In this article, we will provide a detailed overview of the liquidation process for a joint-stock company in Poland, covering key steps and considerations. So, What do the steps to dissolve a single-member limited company mean? ACC Group will address your question. 



1. What are the steps to dissolve a single-member limited company?

Dissolving a single-member limited company involves several steps to ensure the legal and financial closure of the business. Keep in mind that specific requirements and procedures can vary depending on your jurisdiction and the nature of your business.

2. Understanding the Legal Personality of a Joint-Stock Company

A joint-stock company, with its legal personality, can independently engage in economic transactions. The process of liquidation is the culmination of a company's presence in business dealings. This occurs as a result of various reasons mentioned in Art. 459 of the Code of Commercial Companies. These reasons include those specified in the company's agreement, resolutions of the general meeting to dissolve the company, moving the company's registered office abroad, declaring bankruptcy, and reasons indicated in separate acts. The primary objective of liquidation is to settle the company's interests, clear debts, recover receivables, and distribute remaining assets to the shareholders.

3. The Stages of Liquidation

During the liquidation of a joint-stock company, it maintains its legal personality until the process is completed, after which it loses it. The liquidation procedure is carried out under the business name with the designation 'in liquidation.' While the company's objectives may change during this phase, its entrepreneur status is preserved but limited to the liquidation purpose. Initiating the liquidation procedure can have additional effects outlined in special regulations, such as the expiration of permits granted to brokerage houses.

4. Reasons for Liquidation

a. Company's Agreement

Shareholders have the option to specify situations in the agreement that can lead to the company's dissolution without the need for further actions. This can be done during the company's establishment or its operation. Common reasons include the expiration of the established period, achieving specific economic goals, obtaining financing for a particular project, failure to secure intellectual property rights, and the lack of individuals with specific qualifications.

The occurrence of such causes, as specified in the agreement, automatically triggers the liquidation procedure. A separate resolution of the general meeting is not required unless the agreement specifies it or if the cause is vaguely defined.

b. Shareholders' Resolutions

Shareholders can pass a resolution to dissolve the company at any stage of its operation, requiring a majority vote of ¾. This resolution must also be documented by a notary public. In the event that the balance sheet shows a loss exceeding supplementary and reserve capitals and 1/3 of the share capital, an absolute majority vote can be used. The company's agreement may specify different rules for adopting such a resolution.

The liquidation process begins with the adoption of this resolution, and it's important to appoint individuals who will act as liquidators at this stage.

c. Transferring the Registered Office Abroad

A resolution to transfer the company's registered office abroad can be adopted at any stage of the company's operations, requiring a majority vote of ¾. This resolution must be documented by a notary public, and changing the seat of the company necessitates a modification of the statute.

d. Declaration of Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy results from the company's insolvency, and it is governed by the Act on Bankruptcy Law. Insolvency occurs when the company fails to meet its financial obligations or when its liabilities exceed its assets. It's important to note that filing a bankruptcy petition does not automatically lead to bankruptcy; it may be dismissed by the court if the assets are insufficient to cover the costs of proceedings.

There are two forms of bankruptcy: liquidation bankruptcy and bankruptcy with the possibility of an arrangement. The former aims to remove the company from the Register of Entrepreneurs, while the latter allows the company to continue operations with certain conditions.

e.  Court's Ruling

The dissolution of a company may also result from a court's ruling, which can be issued upon the request of a shareholder, management board member, or a competent state authority. The ruling is typically based on situations where the company's goals become unachievable or when significant circumstances threaten the public interest.

It's important to note that the liquidation under the Commercial Companies Code should follow liquidation provided for in the Bankruptcy Law if they coincide.

In conclusion, liquidating a joint-stock company in Poland is a multi-faceted process that involves several legal requirements and steps. If you are a stakeholder in such a company and are considering liquidation, it's crucial to understand the reasons and procedures involved. Seek legal counsel to ensure a smooth and compliant liquidation process.


1. What is the purpose of liquidating a joint-stock company in Poland?

Liquidation is the final stage of a company's existence and aims to settle its interests, pay debts, collect receivables, and distribute remaining assets to shareholders.

2. How is a joint-stock company's liquidation initiated?

The initiation of a company's liquidation can be prompted by various reasons, including those specified in the company's agreement, resolutions of the general meeting, bankruptcy, and more.

3. Can a joint-stock company continue its operations during the liquidation process?

Yes, a joint-stock company can continue its operations in some cases, such as bankruptcy with the possibility of an arrangement, but it will eventually lead to dissolution.

4. What are the implications of transferring a company's registered office abroad?

Transferring a company's registered office abroad requires a resolution and a modification of the statute. This change impacts the company's legal status.

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